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As the Extension Veterinary Entomologist for the state of Georgia, I am charged with research and public education regarding domestic and companion animal ectoparasites as well as pests of livestock and poultry. I have a particular interest in insect pests produced as a consequence of confined animal production.
Because many of these problems are intimately related with animal husbandry practices, the entomological problems cannot adequately be addressed except in the context of a multi-disciplinary approach involving agricultural engineering, animal and dairy science, agricultural economics and sociology, waste management, etc.
Our goals include reducing production of flies from animal confinement facilities (poultry, dairies, etc.) and management of insect pests of domestic animals (poultry, cattle, horses, etc.) and pets. Basic biological, behavioral, and ecological understanding of pests and their natural controls is an essential aspect of designing comprehensive population manipulation programs.
Insecticide resistance in some key veterinary insect pests has made standard population suppression techniques ineffective, necessitating the development of alternative strategies. These include biological control, cultural techniques, environmental manipulation, and insecticide resistance management through innovative systems. Some of the challenges include development of delivery systems for both insecticides and biological control organisms, as well as coordination with agricultural engineers and animal scientists in development of comprehensive pest management programs.
With the loss of many of the insecticides previously used in livestock and poultry production, we are being challenged to develop new strategies for management of pest populations associated with these industries. We continue the search for alternative population suppression techniques that are socially acceptable, cost-effective, ecologically sound, and can be integrated into current animal husbandry systems.
Hinkle, Nancy C., Faris Jirjis, Eugene Szewczyk, Fangshi Sun, and Annie Flochlay-Sigognault. 2018. Efficacy and safety assessment of a water-soluble formulation of fluralaner for treatment of natural Ornithonyssus sylviarum infestations in laying hens. Parasites & Vectors 11:99 (https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2678-y).
Xu, Yumin, Sha Tao, Nancy Hinkle, Mark Harrison, and Jinru Chen. 2018. Salmonella, including antibiotic-resistant Salmonella, from flies captured from cattle farms in Georgia, U.S.A. Science of the Total Environment 616-617: 90-96. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.324)
Vetter, Richard S., Michael L Draney, Christopher A Brown, John T Trumble, Dawn H Gouge, Nancy C Hinkle, and Edward F Pace-Schott. 2018. Spider Fear Versus Scorpion Fear in Undergraduate Students at Five American Universities. American Entomologist 64(2): 79–82 (https://doi.org/10.1093/ae/tmy030)
Rust, M.K., B.L. Blagburn, I. Denholm, M.W. Dryden, P. Payne, N.C. Hinkle, S. Kopp, and M. Williamson. 2018. International program to monitor cat flea populations for susceptibility to imidacloprid. Journal of Medical Entomology 20(10): 1-9. https://academic.oup.com/jme/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jme/tjy092/5038314
Hinkle, N. C. 2011. Ekbom Syndrome: A Delusional Condition of “Bugs in the Skin”. Current Psychiatry Reports 13(3): 178-186. PDF file
Hinkle, Nancy C. 2010. Ekbom Syndrome: The Challenge of “Invisible Bug” Infestations. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 55: 77–94. PDF file
Butler, S.M., R.D. Moon, N.C. Hinkle, J.G. Millar, J.S. McElfresh and B.A. Mullens. 2009. Characterization of age and cuticular hydrocarbon variation in mating pairs of house fly, Musca domestica, collected in the field. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 23(4): 426-442. PDF file
Vetter, R.S., N.C. Hinkle, and L.M. Ames. 2009. Distribution of the Brown Recluse Spider (Araneae: Sicariidae) in Georgia with Comparison to Poison Center Reports of Envenomations. Journal of Medical Entomology 46(1): 15-20. PDF file
Roche, A.J., N.A. Cox, L.J. Richardson, R.J. Buhr, J.A. Cason, B.D. Fairchild, and N.C. Hinkle. 2009. Transmission of Salmonella to Broilers by Contaminated Larval and Adult Lesser Mealworms, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Poultry Science 88: 44-48. PDF file
Hinkle, Nancy C. 2008 “Fleas.” World Health Organization: Public Health Significance of Urban Pests. (Eds. X. Bonnefoy, H. Kampen, and K. Sweeney). WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bonn. PDF file
Webster, A.B., S.A. Thompson, N.C. Hinkle, and W.C. Merka. 2006. In-house composting of layer manure in a high-rise tunnel ventilated commercial layer house over an entire production cycle. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 15: 447-456. PDF file
Rust, M.K., I. Denholm, M.W. Dryden, P. Payne, B.L. Blagburn, D.E. Jacobs, N. Mencke, I. Schroeder, M. Vaughn, H. Mehlhorn, N.C. Hinkle, and M. Williamson. 2005. Determining a diagnostic dose for imidacloprid susceptibility testing of field-collected isolates of cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 42(4): 631-636. Link
Mullens, B.A., D.R. Kuney, N.C. Hinkle, and C.E. Szijj. 2004. Producer attitudes and control practices for northern fowl mites in southern California. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 13(3): 488-492. PDF file
Mullens, B.A., R.K. Velten, N.C. Hinkle, D.R. Kuney, and C.E. Szijj. 2004. Acaricide resistance in northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) populations on caged layer operations in southern California. Poultry Science 83: 365-374. PDF file
Hinkle, N. 2004. Fleas and the PCO. Profile, Georgia Pest Control Association magazine 38(7): 7, 9. PDF file
Hinkle, N.C., P.G. Koehler and F.M. Oi. 2003. Cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis. University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Bulletin ENY-263. PDF file
Rust, M.K., M.M. Waggoner, N.C. Hinkle, D. Stansfield and S. Barnett. 2003. Efficacy and longevity of nitenpyram against adult cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 40(5): 678-681. PDF file
Mullens, B.A., C.E. Szijj and N.C. Hinkle. 2002. Oviposition and development of Fannia spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) on poultry manure of low moisture levels. Environmental Entomology 31(4): 588-593. PDF file
Rust, M.K., M. Waggoner, N.C. Hinkle, N. Mencke, O. Hansen, M. Vaughn, M.W. Dryden, P. Payne, B.L. Blagburn, D.E. Jacobs, T. Bach, D. Bledsoe, T. Hopkins, H. Mehlhorn, and I. Denholm. 2002. Development of a larval bioassay for susceptibility of cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) to imidacloprid. Journal of Medical Entomology 39(4): 671-674. PDF file
Beckendorf, Richard, Stephen A. Klotz, Nancy Hinkle, and William Bartholomew. 2002. Nasal myiasis in an intensive care unit linked to hospital-wide mouse infestation. Archives of Internal Medicine 162: 638-640. PDF file
Mullens, B. A., N. C. Hinkle, C. E. Szijj and D. R. Kuney. 2001. Manure management and predator conservation affect fly control in caged-layer poultry systems. California Agriculture 55(5): 26-30. PDF file
Hinkle, N.C. 2001. Pursuing a faculty position in the sciences. J. Graduate Teaching Assistant Development 8(1): 5-12. PDF file
Mullens, B.A., N.C. Hinkle, L.J. Robinson and C.E. Szijj. 2001. Dispersal of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum, among hens in an experimental poultry house. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 10: 60-64. PDF file
Hinkle, N.C. 2000. Delusory parasitosis. American Entomologist 46(1): 17-25. PDF file
Mullens, B.A., N.C. Hinkle and C.E. Szijj. 2000. Monitoring northern fowl mites (Acari: Macronyssidae) in caged laying hens: feasibility of an egg-based sampling system. Journal of Economic Entomology 93(3): 1045-1054. PDF file
Hinkle, N.C. and L.A. Hickle. 1999. California caged layer pest management evaluation. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 8: 327-338. PDF file
Bossard, R.L., N.C. Hinkle and M.K. Rust. 1998. Review of insecticide resistance in cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 35(4): 415-422. PDF file
Hinkle, N.C., P.G. Koehler and R.S. Patterson. 1998. Host grooming efficiency for regulation of cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) populations. Journal of Medical Entomology 35(3): 266-269. PDF file
Hinkle, N.C., M.K. Rust and D.A. Reierson. 1997. Biorational approaches to flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) suppression: present and future. Journal of Agricultural Entomology 14(3): 309-321. PDF file
Mullens, B.A., N.C. Hinkle and C.E. Szijj. 1996. Impact of alternating manure removal schedules on pest flies (Diptera: Muscidae) and associated predators (Coleoptera: Histeridae, Staphylinidae; Acarina: Macrochelidae) in caged-layer poultry manure in southern California. Journal of Economic Entomology 89(6): 1406-1417. PDF file
Mullens, B.A., N.C. Hinkle and C.E. Szijj. 1996. Role of the poultry manure pad in manure drying and its potential relationship to filth fly control. Journal of Agricultural Entomology 13(4): 331-337. PDF file
Hinkle, N.C., P.G. Koehler and R.S. Patterson. 1995. Residual effectiveness of insect growth regulators applied to carpet for cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) larval control. Journal of Economic Entomology 88(4): 903-906. PDF file
Hinkle, N.C., P.G. Koehler, W.H. Kern, Jr., and R.S. Patterson. 1991. Hematophagous strategies of the cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Florida Entomologist 74(3): 377-385. PDF file
Hinkle, N.C., D.C. Sheppard, and M.P. Nolan, Jr. 1985. Comparing residue exposure and topical application techniques for assessing permethrin resistance in house flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 78: 722-724. PDF file